Authorship in research paper

They also put others forward based on their work, including tasks such as cleaning up, arranging meetings, and making sure colleagues are doing alright. Box 2 Guidelines Ensure that whoever writes the first draft gets first authorship.

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As such, this person receives much of the credit when the research goes well and the flak when things go wrong. This practice arose as some journals wanted to increase accountability by requiring senior lab members to review all data and interpretations produced in their labs.

The journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America PNAS has an editorial policy that specifies "authorship should be limited to those who have contributed substantially to the work" and furthermore, "authors are strongly encouraged to indicate their specific contributions" as a footnote.

multiple first authors

These guidelines are not firm rules, but they provide a starting point from which negotiations can proceed without fear of reprisal. If authors request removal or addition of an author after manuscript submission or publication, journal editors should seek an explanation and signed statement of agreement for the requested change from all listed authors and from the author to be removed or added.

The following are some notable implications regarding author order.

how to write authors in research paper

The group meets, first sorting authors into categories depending on what type of labor they contributed—for example, discussing, writing, and editing, with the specific categories varying depending on the needs of the paper. Ensure that an agreement is negotiated early, which provides clarity of roles and plans for papers.

Authorship in research paper

Authors are sometimes included in a list without their permission. Negotiated order. From the standpoint of journals, lists of specific contributions may help to minimize this practice, as could reminders that all authors are accountable for the integrity of a published work. The Committee on Publication Ethics recommends that researchers discuss authorship order from project initiation to manuscript submission, revising as necessary, and record each decision in writing. It is crucial therefore that those taking credit for the work have actually carried it out and are qualified to guarantee the findings. This practice arose as some journals wanted to increase accountability by requiring senior lab members to review all data and interpretations produced in their labs. When Timothy Kassis, a bioengineer at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, wanted to build an algorithm to help researchers determine the best author order depending on their contributions, the first steps were establishing a standard set of tasks that contribute to authorship and assigning a weight to each. This interdependency may encourage inappropriately assigned authorship—for instance, by rewarding collaborators who achieve high recruitment rates in trials. These guidelines now form part of the department's research policy. The author must have: Contributed substantially to the conception and design of the study, the acquisition of data, or the analysis and interpretation Drafted or provided critical revision of the article Provided final approval of the version to publish Agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved Acquisition of funding, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship.
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Assigning authorship for research papers can be tricky. These approaches can help