The self and the other
The Sartrean subject is still Cartesian in that she is defined by means of terms like self-transparency and self-knowledge.
Meini Both partners actively interact, reciprocally exchanging information during a conversation made of imitations, improvisations, searches for eye-contact etc. It functions as an imaginary object, it hides beyond the appearance and manifests its alterity - and yet it is grasped in its presence, it is here, it is open to view.
It was Husserl who elaborated on the question of how the picture - for example, the portrait of my friend - appears to my consciousness.
The self and the other in literature
The "something or someone" represented by the picture can in an analogous fashion be termed the original of the picture - that is to say, the being that serves as the model of the pictorial representation. These conscious acts are part of us, that is to say, they are immanent to us. It originated in the philosophy of Descartes and was further developed by Husserl. The attitude has to do with unrealising a given thing a piece of music, a dance, etc. Notably, the imperfection of imitations, far from being a manifestation of immaturity, is a very important feature that makes these interactions a genuine kind of conversation, in which new information arises from a shared context. For thinking is "all that of which we are conscious as operating in us," 2 that is all the "actions" and "passions" 3 which belong to us as to their conscious subject. The intellectual justification for colonial empire was realised with essentialist, cultural representations of people, places, and things in books and pictures and fashions that conflated Eastern cultures into the artificial, binary relation of The Orient and The Occident — Orientalism materialised [ disambiguation needed ] the Western Self and the non—Western Other in the same world. To be more precise we should say that in his account of imagination Sartre takes the Husserlian theory of the picture consciousness as a clue. And it is the absence of the original that motivates and makes possible the production of images or pictures: I call upon the image of someone because I cannot make her present in person or in flesh and blood. Yet the appearance of spontaneity, of activity etc. Recently, in a different context, Antonio Damasio has also stressed the idea that the self precedes consciousness and is a precondition for it. The former is the time recorded by the historians, the latter is the time that appears only when the audience listens to a piece of music. The notion of the immaterial or non-physical picture that pure fantasy apparently involved turned out to be a contradictory construct.
In the event, Levinas re-formulated the face-to-face encounter wherein a person is morally responsible to the Other person to include the propositions of Jacques Derrida — about the impossibility of the Other person being an entirely metaphysical pure-presence. Sarojini Sahoo said that women possess a discrete identity that is independent of the male definition of Woman.
The above remarks reveal that for Sartre the image is first of all a sort of a picture - that is to say a visual representation of something or someone.
Recently, in a different context, Antonio Damasio has also stressed the idea that the self precedes consciousness and is a precondition for it.
The self and the other
Ideas of similarity and difference are central to the way in which we achieve a sense of identity and social belonging. Gilbert, K. Orientalism[ edit ] To the European populations, Western imperialism military conquest of non-white peoples, annexation of their countries, and economic integration to the motherland was intellectually justified by Orientalism, the study and fetishization of the Eastern world. They allow us to make evident that the imaginary object - the picture of itself - is properly speaking an other, and that the imaginary subject, in virtue of being divided between itself and itself as an other, is a kind of subject that can apprehend the otherness of another self. The alterity of the original is defined by means of an absence that is no more than a sheer absence - an accidental state of affairs or to speak like Husserl - a real predicate. Now that means: the ego is not another subject in the way in which I am a subject , the ego is not another consciousness in the way in which I am a consciousness. It cannot conceive of another consciousness insofar as it is an enclosed, self-contained consciousness for which the very amalgam "other" and "consciousness" is simply unthinkable. In the third section we describe the role of the Other in the precocious identity view. For permission please contact hsk. The things that I am not - the surrounding world, the body, other people - are given to me in a mediated and indirect way. Identities have some element of exclusivity. So, by defining itself a group defines others. In this condition the caretaker, who is supposed to offer protection, needs himself to be taken care of, thus forcing the baby to reverse her own natural role: the child, being a weak person, is supposed to receive protection from the adult, must instead give protection, comforting and reassuring the caretaker. That is why the Lady can be an inhuman partner: there are no limits as to what she can demand from her admirer as a proof of his devotion to her
Thus it is that no group ever sets itself up as the One without at once setting up the Other over against itself. Should the two subjects coincide and become indistinguishable, I would no longer be dreaming, I would be delirious. In the case of poor ballet dancing, I am unable to adopt the aesthetic attitude that lets a work of art function as such.
He argues that identities are set up as dichotomies : Zygmunt Bauman on Otherness Woman is the other of man, animal is the other of human, stranger is the other of native, abnormality the other of norm, deviation the other of law-abiding, illness the other of health, insanity the other of reason, lay public the other of the expert, foreigner the other of state subject, enemy the other of friend Bauman 8.
In this sense it is a necessary precursor of the Self.
based on 74 review